Tag Archives: build a change team

The change resource problem

What is the change resource problem?

People resources for Change

Two items came across my consciousness recently which are not difficult to link. The first is a set of lessons learned from projects in an organisation. An outstanding item of the lessons is the complaint that not enough people resources were available, or the people allocated already had a day job. The second item was an article about allocating resources across a business for strategic performance improvement. This article simply points that that the best resource allocation is based on getting the best return on investment.

click here for a solution to the resource problem

Knowledge or Competence, that is the question.

Knowledge or Competence?

What do employers want from their employees: knowledge or competence?

Knowledge or Competence, that is the question.

I visited a client recently who told me they were re-orienting their training because they needed people who can do things, they distinguished between “know how and know what”. Know how is knowledge, often raw and not contexualised, classically this knowledge is gained in a class room. What employers want is people who can do things — employing contextualised knowledge, experience and skills — know that!

The client introduced me to the Dreyfus model of skill acquisition to explain the difference. My question is: how can training qualifications indicate competence rather than knowledge?

<!–more– click here to find out how>

The Dreyfus model

In this model the learner acquires skills (the ability to execute) in a series of stages:

  1. Novice — rigid adherence to rules, no use of judgement or context. This is the holder of knowledge only.
  2. Advanced beginner — limited use of context and inability to prioritise. This person has some experience but is focussed on the task, not the job.
  3. Competent — able to plan and manage longer term goals, can manage lots of (potentially conflicting) information and uses context. This person has experience, sees some of the big picture and makes decisions in context but still relies a lot on learned or standardised procedures.
  4. Proficient — has a holistic view of situations and makes decisions accordingly, can prioritise and see where new ideas are needed.
  5. Expert — operates almost unconsciously within the context using intuition and tacit underestanding of situations.

I think you can see the development of an internal model of the job which matches the progress from initiate, through apperentice and professional to mastery. This model is widely used in the training and development of medical staff; including nurses, surgeons and general practitioners — which recognises basic skills as well as deep understanding of the complexity of the human body and its social context.

In a recent blog we looked at how a qualification can recognise some of the higher order thinking skills that would need to be acquired to move to Advanced Beginner and Competent. We introduced the Kirkpatrick model of training outcomes. This model is very useful because it does distinguish between knowledge (Kirkpatrick level 2) and competence (Kirkpatrick level 3).

What can a qualification show?

A qualification on its own will not distinguish between knowledge and competence. A holder of an honours degree will clearly have knowledge, but experience or competence? I would argue that a modern university degree demonstrates knowledge and the ability to do academic learning. What the employer wants is a competence, hence the reason why so many ask for some experience in job adverts. The typical two year experience requirement implies that it takes two years to acquire a useful level of competence on top of knowledge!

To understand what a qualification is indicating it is necessary to look at the assessment method for the qualification. There are two basic sorts used in so-called professional qualifications:

  • An objective test of knowledge. To be objective the answers must resolve to true or false against a written body of knowledge. These tests are typically taken at the end of the training course when the knowledge is freshest. They are a good indicator of knowledge, nothing more. Which identifies at most a Novice in the Dreyfus model.
  • An evidence based workplace assessment. This involves the candidate using skills and knowledge in a workplace situation to produce evidence that they have understood and can apply their skills and knowledge to a context. Which indicates a level between Advanced Beginner and Competent in the Dreyfus model.

What you can not do is look at the title of a qualification, or often the level. My favourite miss-named qualification is the PRINCE2® Practitioner. The assessment is an objective test and the candidate can (at best) indicate whether solutions proposed by the examiner are consistent with the text. The candidate does not have to have practised anything. I know of a number of people who have read the book, passed the test, and then gone on to train courses without any project experience at all.

What can you do?

If you are looking for indications of competence, not knowledge, then you need to look carefully at the qualifications your staff are acquiring. You need to ask hard questions about what problem are you solving by sending staff on a training course leading to a qualification.

The Centre for Change Management has been pioneering competence based qualifications in project, programme and change management. Talk to us about meeting your needs.

twitter Tweet us to discuss how qualifications are supporting your business. Contact us through twitter or respond to this blog.

Better training outcomes

Aim higher, be better

Strategy in ChangeAs an experienced trainer I am often frustrated by the poor (or most likely non-existent) post training activity of the candidates which should be consolidating their learning during the course.  Why would any manager invest in training their staff if their organisation is not going to benefit from it? Well it turns out that most managers do exactly that. This blog will look at what outcomes are available, what needs to be done to achieve them, and how C4CM can help you aim higher and get better returns on your training investment.

C4CM provides certification for learning programmes. Our new accredited set allows us to distinguish between training outcomes and provides managers with evidence of the effectiveness of their investment.

read on to find out how

Middle managers to drive change

What does it take to succeed in change?

shutterstock_121409479Middle managers in most organisations have a huge influence over the success of organisational change. Most middle managers are passive about change; a few step up to delivering change; all of them need to be behind the change. Some recent blogs point to how to get middle managers on the side of success in change.

click here to find out how

Change Advocates — a good idea?

The idea of advocating change

Change AdvocateChange advocates both promote change in a business and help protect staff from poor change implementation. They do this by advocating the change on behalf of the business and being a channel between affected staff  and senior managers. The role demands trust and respect from both staff and managers; here is how it works.

The problem the Change Advocate role tries to solve is how to get buy in to major changes where the change is managed by a central Change Team. We have worked with Cheshire West and Chester Council to help implement this concept. The project is now on the shortlist for an Award at the Training Journal Awards.

The Change Advocate Role

Cheshire West and Chester Council (CWCC) realised that centralised project management was efficient for doing change but tended to cause resistance from the front line staff so it was not as effective as it should be. The Change Advocate is a member of front line staff (manager or worker) who is trained and supported in delivering change. They have two aspects to the role which each advocate needs to balance.

Promoting Change

The Change advocate promotes the proposed change to front line staff. They communicate directly with affected staff about the change, using communications skills they have learned on training. Advocates expect to be involved in planning change; stakeholder engagement is key to successfully designing an effective and acceptable change. With prior engagement, selling a change to staff is much easier. Advocates will be involved in rolling out the change, continuing the communication. They will lead in solving problems in a way that both reduces risks to the benefits and increases the confidence of staff in the changes.

Promoting the interests of staff

Change advocates are themselves affected by the change they are promoting so they have a vested interest in a successful and acceptable change. They have the ability to put the staff side of an argument (with the central change team) to senior managers and advocate on behalf of staff. Very often this role leads to more creative solutions to change problems which are based on reality.

What makes an Advocate?

An advocate needs to be self motivated (and is usually self selecting as a volunteer). They need the trust and support of the staff they are working with. Often the basis of this trust is both a transparent approach to work and knowledge of the front line based on experience. They also need to be able to talk directly to senior managers as peers in problem solving change issues. In many organisations this can be challenging. CWCC are working hard to create a culture of support and challenge to make these conversations easier all round.

Supporting Change Advocates

In creating the first cohort of Change Advocates, CWCC worked with us to support the role with three specific components:

Networking

It is very important for an individual advocate to realise they are not alone and that others are having similar difficulties. Regular networking events with the opportunity to share experience and problems are essential. CWCC held networking events every month for the whole cohort. These were carefully timetabled with time to chat and share, as well as more focused discussions and learning sound-bites to reinforce training associated with identified problems.

Problem solving

The cohort were randomly allocated to small Action Learning Sets. The purpose of these was threefold:

  • To train the cohort in a specific supportive problem solving technique.
  • To provide the basis for ongoing collaboration with a small group of colleagues across the Council.
  • As further networking, but on a smaller, more intimate, basis.

The Action Learning Sets were initially facilitated to establish the format and procedures. After a few meetings they became self facilitating.

Training

A short training course on some soft skills for change was used to introduce the concepts of people change and effective communication recognising individual preferences. Change Advocates then took a vocational Level 4 assessment to achieve a qualification in Managing Change from C4CM.

About You

How is change organised in your organisation to make effective and efficient use of resources to deliver beneficial change? Comment in twitter and let us know. @C4ChangeMgt